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Topic: Kidney tonifying traditional Chinese medicine

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Kidney tonifying traditional Chinese medicine
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The aging global population is increasingly affected by osteoporosis (OP), which is one of the most significant threats to the elderly. Moreover, its prevention and treatment situations have become increasingly severe. Therefore, it is imperative to develop alternatives or complementary drugs for preventing and treating osteoporosis. Kidney tonifying traditional Chinese medicine (KTTCM) has been used for the treatment of osteoporosis for a long time. To get more news about vigrx plus where to buy, you can visit vigrxplus-original.com official website.

Pharmacological studies have shown that kidney tonifying traditional Chinese medicine can promote osteoblasts, inhibit osteoclasts, and regulate the level of estrogen and plays vital roles in stimulating osteogenesis, restraining adipogenesis of marrow mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs), regulating the metabolism of calcium and phosphorus, and inhibiting oxidative stress. These effects are mediated by OPG/RANKL/RANK, BMP/Smads, MAPKs, and Wnt/β-catenin systems. To develop a safe, synergistic, effective, and homogenized TCM formula with robust scientific evidence to provide faster and more economical alternatives, the anti-osteoporosis ingredients and pharmacological mechanisms of kidney tonifying traditional Chinese medicine are recapitulated from the perspective of molecular and cell biology, and the safety and toxicity of kidney tonifying traditional Chinese medicine have also been reviewed in this paper.

Introduction
Osteoporosis, a chronic metabolic bone disease, affects the distribution of bone microstructure and leads to a decrease in bone mass, leading to decreased bone strength and higher fracture risk. The occurrence and progression of OP are complex and influenced by multiple factors, such as genetics, environmental factors, and immune abnormalities (Barnsley et al., 2021). OP has gradually become one of the high-risk diseases, which not only severely impacts the quality of life of the elderly but also generates excessive financial and psychological burdens for the family and society. With the rapid growth of aging populations on a global scale, osteoporotic fractures have become a crucial public health concern worldwide (Clynes et al., 2020).

In therapeutic practice, several types of drugs are used for treating OP, such as bisphosphonates, estrogen, parathyroid hormones, and calcitonin. Nevertheless, they may cause many serious side effects, including gastrointestinal adverse effects, joint pain, and leg cramps related to bisphosphonates in the treatment of osteoporosis (Cheng et al., 2020). In Chinese medicine theory, “Zang-Fu” is completely different from that of the organ in western medicine; it includes a large group of organs with interrelated physiological functions, which suggests that its function is not restricted by a single organ. Therefore, the “kidney” in TCM has a wide range of physiological functions, which refers to the organ system related to reproduction, growth and development, digestion, endocrine metabolism, and other functions (Lin et al., 2018).

“Kidney deficiency” is also a broad concept that comprises abnormalities of many systems, such as the urinary system, reproductive system, endocrine system, neuropsychiatric system, and digestive system (Wang et al., 2016). Kidney tonifying traditional Chinese medicine (KTTCM) refers to TCM formulas, botanical drugs, and chemical constituents that can treat deficiency of the kidney and restore physical function (He et al., 2017). The traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) theory indicated that spleen and kidney deficiency is an important reason for the etiology and pathogenesis of OP; in other words, fasciae and the loss of bone nourishment are the main disease mechanism for kidney deficiency. Furthermore, it can be cured by KTTCM under the theory of ‘kidney dominates bone' (Xue C et al., 2022). KTTCM plays essential roles in facilitating bone formation, inhibiting bone resorption, regulating bone remodeling balance, promoting sex hormone secretion, suppressing oxidative stress, and regulating calcium and phosphorus metabolism (Peng et al., 2022).

In this review, the literature was searched with keywords including osteoblast, osteoclast, and osteoporosis from PubMed, Medline, Web of Science, ScienceDirect, CNKI, and VIP database from 2000 to 2022. Relevant data were collected from Chinese traditional books, Chinese Pharmacopoeia, and TCM formulas to identify the anti-osteoporosis effects and potential mechanisms of TCM formulas, botanical drugs, and chemical constituents, as well as their toxicity. Finally, the possibility of KTTCM as an alternative therapeutic option for osteoporosis was discussed proactively, and subsequent studies of KTTCM were prospected.



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